B.E E.C Sixth Sem Syllabus(GTU)

Antenna and Wave Propagation
TOPICS
Description
1
Basic antenna concepts:
Definition and functions of an antenna, comparison between an antenna & transmission line, radio communication link with transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna, radiation patterns of antennas-field and power patterns, all antenna types.
2
Radiation of Electric dipole:
Potential functions and the electromagnetic field, Oscillating electric dipolederivations for E and H field components in spherical coordinate systems, Power Radiated by a current element, Application to antennas, Radiation from quaterwave monopole and half wave dipoles, Derivation for radiation resistance, application of reciprocity theorem to antennas, equality of directional patterns and effective lengths of transmitting and receiving antennas, directional properties of dipole antennas,antenna feeding methods.
3
Antenna parameters and definitions:
Beam area, beam width- Half-Power Beam width (HPBW)and First Null Beam width(FNBW) ,Polarisation,Radiation Intensity ,Beam Efficiency, Directivity and directive gain, radiation resistance, radiation efficiency, resolution, Antenna aperture-physical and effective apertures, effective height, transmission formula, antenna field zones, Transmission loss as a function of frequency.Antenna temperature and signal to noise ratio.
4
Arrays of point sources :
Expression for electric fields from two, three and N element arrays- linear arrays: Broad-side array and End-Fire array- Method of pattern
multiplication- Binomial array-Horizontal and Vertical Antennas above the ground plane, Effect of ground on ungrounded antenna, Schelkunoff theorems for linear arrays, Dolph-Tchebysheff distribution for linear arrays.
5
Loop Antenna:
Small loop short magnetic dipole, comparison of far field of small loop and short dipole loop antennas, field pattern of circular loop antenna & radiation resistance of loop antenna, directivity of circular loop antennas with uniform current.
6
Helical antenna:
Helical geometry, transmission radiation modes, practical design considerations, wide band characteristics of helical antenna.
7
Arrays of dipoles & apertures:
3 element dipole Array with parasitic elements,Yagi-uda array-function and its design, Phased arrays, frequency scanning arrays, smart antennas, long wire antennas, location methods of feeding antennas, folded dipole antennas, matching arrangements.
8
Reflector antennas:
Parabolic reflector, paraboloid reflector, aperture Pattern of large circular apertures with uniform illumination, off axis operation of paraboloid reflectors ,Cassegrain feed system.
9
Slot patch & Horn antennas:
Slot antenna, its pattern,Babinet’s principle and complementary antennas, impedance of slot antennas, and horn antenna-function and types.
10
Microstrip ( patch) antennas :
Rectangular and circular types-function, features analysis ,design
considerations and applications
11
Lens antennas:
Nonmetallic Dielectric lens and artificial dielectric lens antennas, reflector lens antennas.
12
Broadband & Freq. Independent antennas:
Broadband antenna, Frequency.independent antenna, log periodic antennas.
13
Antennas for special applications:
Antennas design consideration for satellite communication, antenna for terrestrial mobile communication systems, GPR, Embedded antennas, UWB, Plasma antenna.
14
Antennas measurements:
Experimental set ups for Measurement of radiation patterns, gain, phase polarization, terminal impedance.
15
Radio wave propagation :
Modes of propagation, Ground Wave Propgation,Structure of troposphere and ionosphere, Characteristic of Ionospheric layers, Sky wave propagation, Definitions for Virtual height, MUF and Skip distance, OWF, Fading,ionospheric absorptions, Multi-hop propagation, Space wave propagation and Super refraction.
BOOKS
Title
1
Antennas for all applications 3 edition. by J.D.Krauss, TMH.
2
Electromagnetic wave & radiating systems by Jordan & Balmain, PHI Publication.
3
Antenna & Wave Propagation by K.D. Prasad, Satyaprakash Publications.
4
Antenna Theory: Analysis and design –C. Balanis ,Wiley India.
5
Antenna and wave propagation By G.S.N. Raju,Pearson Education
Audio-Video Systems
TOPICS
Description
1
Sound Fundamentals :
The Physics of Sound, Sound and the Ear, The Cochlea, Mental Processes, Level and Loudness, Pitch, Frequency Response and Linearity, Audio Level Metering, The Decibel in Acoustics, Acoustic Intensity Level, Acoustic Power Level, Acoustic Pressure Level, Inverse Square Law, The VU and the Volume Indicator Instrument, The Phon, Velocity of Sound, Reflection and Refraction, Absorption, Root Mean Square Measurements, selection of sound absorbing materials.Architectural Acoustics.
2
Sound Amplification:
Preamplifiers Requirements, Signal Voltage and Impedance Levels, Preamplifier Stages, Voltage Amplifier Design, Constant-Current Sources and Current Mirrors, Performance Standards, Power Amplifier Classes, Thermal Dissipation Limits, Single-Ended Versus Push–Pull Operation, Switching Amplifiers, Amplifier Grounding, Cross Over Network. Audio Terminations Line-in/out, Aux-in/out, Mic In.
3
Digital Audio :
Digital Audio Fundamentals, Sampling and Quantizing, PCM, Audio Compression, Disk-Based Recording, Rotary Head Digital Recorders, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Filtering, Stereophony and Multichannel Sound.
4
Audio Devices and Applications:
Microphone Sensitivity, Nature of Response and Directional Characteristics, Measurement Microphones, Various Types of Microphones, Various Types of Loudspeakers, Characteristic Impedance of Loud Speakers, Headphone Types, The basics of Magnetic Recording, Sound Cards, Sound Mixers, PA Systems & Installations, Digital Consoles.
5
Introduction to Video Signals:
Video signal dimensions, Horizontal sync composition, Vertical sync details, Function of vertical pulse train, Scanning sequence details, Geometric form and aspect ratio, Image continuity, No. of scanning lines, Interlaced scanning, Resolution, Brightness, Contrast, Picture transmission, TV transmitter, TV receiver, Synchronization, Receiver controls. Perception of brightness and colour, Additive and subtractive colour mixing, Video signals for colour transmission, Luminance signal (Y), Compatibility, Colour-difference signals, encoding of colour difference signals, Formation of chrominance signal
6
Television Signal Transmission & Propagation :
Picture Signal transmission, Positive and negative modulation, Vestigial sideband transmission, Standard channel BW, Television transmitter, TV Signal propagation, Interference suffered by TV channels. TV broadcast channels for terrestrial transmission.
7
Television Receiver :
RF Tuner, IF Subsystem, Video amplifier, Sound section, Sync separation and processing, Deflection circuits, Scanning Currents in the yoke, DC power supplies. Electronic tuners, IF Subsystem, Y Signal channel, Chroma decoder, Separation of U and V colour phasors, Synchronous demodulators, Sub carrier generation and control, Matrixing for drive circuits. Receiver Servicing, Video pattern generator, Sweep & Marker generator, Colour TV Pattern Generator, Vectroscope.
8
Digital Video & Standards :
Digitizing Video, Chroma Subsampling, Basics of Video Compression (MPEG-x, H.26x), Digital VTR, Non-Linear Editing, 4:3 Vs 16:9 for Digital Video.
9
Advances in TV Technology :
HDTV, Display Technologies (CRT, LCD, Plasma, LED, Projection), Video
Interfaces (Composite, Component, S-Video, DV, SDI, HDMI, DVI).
10
Television Systems and Standards :
NTSC Colour System, PAL Colour System, French Colour TV System, ATSC, ISDB-T & DTMB, Overview of DVB-T, DVB-S, DVB-C & DVB-IP, DVB-H, Cable Television Network
BOOKS
Title
1
Audio Video Systems Principles Practices and Troubleshooting, by Bali & Bali, Khanna Publishing Company.
2
Audio Engineering, Know it all series, Newnes Press, ISBN 978-1-85617-526-5
3
Modern Television Practice by R.R. Gulati.
4
Audio Video Systems by R.G. Gupta, Technical Education.
5
Essential Guide to Digital Video by John Watkinson, Snell & Wilcox Inc Publication.
6
Guide To Compression By John Watkinson, Snell & Wilcox Inc Publication
Digital Communication
TOPICS
Description
1
Probability Theory & Random Variables :
Information, Probability, Conditional Probability of independent events, Relation between probability and probability Density , Releigh Probability Density , CDF, PDF, Random Variables, Variance of a Random Variable ,correlation between Random Variables, Statistical Averages(Means),Mean and Variance of sum of Random variables, Linear
mean square Estimation, Central limit theorem, Error function and Complementary error function Discrete and Continuous Variable, Gaussian PDF, Threshold Detection, Statistical Average,Chebyshev In Equality, Auto correction.
2
Information Theory :
Concept & Measure of information, Source Coding, Error Free Communication Over a noisy channel, Shannon Theorem, The channel capacity of a Discrete Memory less Channel, Optimum System, The channel capacity of a Continuous Channel, Practical Communication System In Light of Shannon’s Equation.
3
Formatting a Base Band Modulation :
Base band system, The Sampling Theorem, Sampling and interpolation functions,Spectra,Nyquist Theorem, Under sampling, Applications ,Aliasing, PCM, DPCM, ADPCM, Uniform and Non-uniform Quantization, Quantization Error in PCM,Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulations ,SNR Calculation,Non-uniform Quantization, Phase Modulation.
4
Digital communication system :
Digital multiplexing ,line coding, PSD on /off signaling, Bipolar signaling, Duo binary signal, pulse shapping, Nyquist first and second criterion for zero ISI,Regenerative repeaters,Detection error Probability, M-ary System, Scrambling,Digital Carrier System
5
Error Correcting Codes :
Introduction, Linear block code, cyclic code, convolution code, Burst Error Correcting and detecting code, Interlaced code for burst and random error Generation, Comparison of coded and un-coded system.
6
Digital Modulation Techniques :
QAM, BPSK, QPSK, DEPSK, DPSK, MSK, M-ary-FSK, M-ary-PSK, BFSK of various digital modulation techniques.
7
Digital Communication Systems in the Presence of Noise :
Noise Figure, Signal to noise Ratio, performance of communication system with channel noise, Optimum Binary Receiver.
8
Digital Carrier Demodulation Techniques :
Coherent and non-coherent detection of ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK,DPSK.
9
Spread Spectrum Communications :
Introduction to Frequency hopping, Introduction to direct sequence Spread Spectrum, Introduction to CDMA, Overview of latest trends in digital communication.
BOOKS
Title
1
Digital and analog communication system by B.P.Lathi .Zhi Ding(international 4th Edition), OXFORD university press.
2
Principle of communication system by Taub . Schilling (2nd Edition), TATA McGRAW-HILL.
3
An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communications by Simon Haykin, Wiley India.
4
Digital Communications by Simon Haykin, Wiley India.
Optical Communication
1
Overview of Optical fiber Communications :
Electromagnetic spectrum, Optical Spectral bands, Evolution of fiber optic system, Multiplexing Techniques, Elements of an optical fiber transmission link with the functional description of each block, WDM concepts, transmission widows, advantages of optical fiber link over conventional copper systems, applications of fiber optic transmission systems.
2
Optical fibers : Structures, Waveguiding and fabrication :
Optical laws and definitions, optical fiber modes and configurations, Mode theory, Step Index and Graded Index (GI) fibers ,single mode and graded
index fibers, Derivation for numerical aperture, V number and modes supported by step index fiber, mode field ,Numerical aperture and modes
supported by GI fibers, fiber materials, linearly Polarized modes fiber fabrication techniques, and mechanical properties of fibers, fiber optic cables.
3
Signal Degradation in Optical fibers :
Attenuation, signal distortion in optical waveguides, pulse broadening in graded index fiber, Characteristics of Single Mode Fibers, mode coupling, International Standards for optical transmission fibers.
4
Optical Sources :
Semiconductor Physics background, Light emitting diode (LEDs)-structures, materials, Figure of merits, characteristics & Modulation. Laser
Diodes -Modes & threshold conditions, Diode Rate equations, resonant frequencies, structures, characteristics and figure of merits, single mode
lasers, Modulation of laser diodes, Spectral width , temperature effects, and Light source linearity.
5
Power Launching and Coupling :
Source to fiber power launching, Lensing schemes, fiber-to-fiber joints, LED coupling to single mode fibers, fiber splicing, Optical fiber connectors.
6
Photodetectors :
Principles of operation, types, characteristics, figure of merits of detectors photodiode materials, photodetector noise, detector response time, temperature effects on gain, comparison of photodetectors.
7
Optical Receiver Operation :
Receiver operation, Preamplifier types, receiver performance and sensitivity, Eye diagrams, Coherent detection, Specification of receivers.
8
Transmission Systems :
Point –to-point link –system considerations, Link power budget and rise time budget methods for design of optical link, BER calculation
9
Optical Amplifiers :
Semiconductor optical Amplifier, EDFA, Raman Amplifier, Wideband Optical Amplifiers
10
Advances in Optical Fiber Systems :
Principles of WDM, DWDM, Telecommunications & broadband application, SONET/SDH, MUX, Analog & Digital broadband, optical switching.
11
Overview of Optical Components :
Optical couplers, Tunable sources and Filters ,optical MUX/DEMUX, Arrayed waveguide grating, optical add drop multiplexer (OADM), optical
cirulators, attenuators, optical cross connects, wavelength converter, Mach-Zender Interferometer,
12
Fiber Optical Measurements :
Test Equipments, OTDR , Set ups for Measurement of Attenuation, Dispersion, NA and EYE pattern .
BOOKS
Title
1
Optical Fiber Communications by Gerd Keiser, 4th Edition (Mc Graw Hill)
2
Optical Fiber Communication by John M. Senior (PHI/Pearson)
VLSI Technology and Design
TOPICS
Description
1
Introduction:
Overview of VLSI design methodology, VLSI design flow, Design hierarchy, Concept of regularity, Modularity, and Locality, VLSI
design style, Design quality, package technology, ,computer aided design technology.
2
Fabrication of MOSFET :
Introduction, Fabrication Process flow: Basic steps, C-MOS n-Well Process, Layout Design rules, full custom mask layout design.
3
MOS Transistor:
The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) structure, The MOS System under external bias, Structure and Operation of MOS transistor, MOSFET Current- Voltage characteristics, MOSFET scaling and small-geometry effects, MOSFET capacitances
4
MOS Inverters: Static characteristics:
Introduction, Resistive load Inverter, Inverter with n-type MOSFET load (Enhancement and Depletion type MOSFET load), CMOS Inverter
5
MOS Inverters Switching characteristics and Interconnect Effects :
Introduction, Delay-time definitions, Calculation of Delay times, Inverter design with delay constraints, Estimation of Interconnect Parasitic, Calculation of interconnect delay, Switching Power Dissipation of CMOS Inverters
6
Combinational MOS Logic Circuits:
Introduction, MOS logic circuits with Depletion nMOS Loads, CMOS logic circuits, Complex logic circuits, CMOS Transmission Gates (TGs)
7
Sequential MOS Logic Circuits :
Introduction, Behaviour of Bistable elements, The SR latch circuit, Clocked latch and Flip-flop circuit, CMOS D-latch and Edge-triggered flip-flop
8
Dynamic Logic Circuits :
Introduction, Basic Principles of pass transistor circuits, Voltage Bootstrapping, Synchronous Dynamic Circuit Techniques, CMOS Dynamic Circuit Techniques, High-performance Dynamic CMOS circuits
9
Chip I/P and O/P Circuits :
On chip Clock Generation and Distribution, Latch –Up and its Prevention
10
Design for testability :
Introduction, Fault types and models, Controllability and observability, Ad Hoc Testable design techniques, Scan –based techniques, built-in Self Test (BIST) techniques, current monitoring IDDQ test
11
Introduction to Programmable Logic Devices:
FPGA and CPLD
BOOKS
Title
1
CMOS Digital Integrated circuits – Analysis and Design by Sung – Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, TATA McGraw-Hill Pub. Company Ltd., Third Edition.
2
Basic VLSI Design By Pucknell and Eshraghian, PHI,3rd ed.
3
Introduction to VLSI Systems by Mead C and Conway, Addison Wesley
4
Introduction to VLSI Circuits & Systems – John P. Uyemura
5
Fundamentals of Digital Logic Design with VHDL, Brown and Vranesic
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