B.E E.C Third Sem Syllabus(GTU)

Mathematics-III
TOPICS
Description
1
First order ODE:
Methods for solving them, homogeneous equations, exactness, methods forfinding integrating factors, Linear and Bernoulli’s equation.
2
Higher order ODE:
Linear ODEs (generalities) complimentary function as and particularintegrals, linear dependence and independence of functions, Wronskians,Abel-Liouville formula, use of a known solution (for reduction of order)method of variation of parameter.
3
Linear ODEs
Linear ODEs with constant coefficient and the Cauchy Euler equation. thecharacteristic polynomial and indicial polynomial, discussion of the case ofcomplex roots and repeated roots, extracting the real form of the solution viaEuler’s formula (eiθ=cosθ+sinθ)method of undetermined coefficient forfinding the particular integral for special right hand sides. (forcing functions)both for constant coefficient ODEs as well as Cauchy Euler ODEs.
4
Beta Gamma functions
Basic properties, statement of Euler’sreflection formula, duplication formula via beta gamma.
5
Laplace transforms:
Definition of functions of exponential type with examples. Definition of theLaplace transform and its basic properties as well as examples of Laplacetransforms of exponential function, polynomials and trigonometric functions.Statement of the Riemann Lebesgue lemma. Finding the inverse transform.Laplace transform of dny/dtn and tny(t) Heaviside unit step function and shiftingtheorems. Convolution and the convolutions theorem. Beta gamma identity.Use of Laplace transform for solving IVP for ODEs and systems of ODEs.Computing certain important integrals via Laplace transforms.
6
solution of ODEs
Series solution of ODEs, Illustrative examples as the equations of Legendre,Tchebychev etc., Legendre polynomials, their Orthogonality andcompleteness.
7
Ordinary differential equations
Ordinary differential equations with regular singular points and the method ofFrobenious. Detailed discussion of Bessel’s equations and Bessels’functions of first kind only. Basic properties of jp(x) , the recurrence relationbetween jp-1(x) ,jp(x) and jp+1(x) .Integral representation of jn(x) (where n is a non negative integer).
8
Fourier series and Fourier transforms
(i) Basic formulae in Fourier series.Statement of the theorem on pointwise convergence of Fourier series.
Parsevals formula (statement only) and Bessel’s inequality with examples.Mean convergence of Fourier series.
(ii) Fourier transforms and its basic properties. Fourier transform of theGaussian and the Fourier inversion theorem (statement only). RiemannLebesgue lemma for Fourier series and Fourier transforms (statement only).
9
partial differential equations
Basic partial differential equations of mathematical physics and their origins(vibrating strings, vibrating membrances heat conduction in solids etc.,).Solving PDEs via the method of separation of variables. The Laplaceoperator in cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates. Brief discussion ofFourier Bessel series. Solution via Fourier series/Fourier-Bessel series forrectangular and circular domains in  R2 and spherical and cylindricaldomains in R3.
BOOKS
Title
1
E.Kreyszig, Advanced engineering mathematics (8th Edition), John Wiley (1999).
2
W. E. Boyce and R. DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations (8th Edition), John Wiley (2005).
3
R. V. Churchill and J. W. Brown, Fourier series and boundary value problems (7th Edition), McGraw-Hill (2006).
4
T.M.Apostol, Calculus , Volume-2 ( 2nd Edition ), Wiley Eastern , 1980
Basic Electronics
TOPICS
Description
1
Energy Bands in Solids:
Charged Particles, Field Intensity, Potential Energy, The eV Unit of Energy, The Nature of the Atom, Atomic Energy Levels, Electronic Structure of The Elements, The Energy Band Theory of Crystals, Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals
2
Transport Phenomena in Semiconductors:
Mobility and Conductivity, Electrons and Holes in an Intrinsic Semiconductor, Donor and Acceptor Impurities, Charge Densities in a Semiconductor, Electrical Properties of Ge and Si, The Hall Effect,
Conductivity Modulation, Generation and Recombination of Charges, Diffusion, The Continuity Equation, Injected Minority –Carrier Charge, The Potential Variation within a Graded Semiconductor
3
Junction –Diode Characteristics:
Open –Circuited p-n Junction, p-n Junction as a Rectifier, Current Components in a p-n Diode, Volt-Ampere Characteristic, Temperature Dependence of the V/I Characteristic, Diode Resistance, Space Charge ,
Transition Capacitance, Charge-Control Description of a Diode , Diffusion Capacitance , Junction Diode Switching Times, Breakdown Diodes, Tunnel Diode, Semiconductor Photodiode, Photovoltaic Effect, Light –Emitting Diodes
4
Diode Circuits:
Diode as a Circuit Element, Load-Line Concept, Piecewise Linear Diode Model, Clipping Circuits, Clipping at Two Independent Levels, Comparators, Sampling Gate, Rectifiers, Other Full-Wave Circuits, Capacitor Filters, Additional Diode Circuits
5
Transistor Characteristics:
Junction Transistor, Transistor Current Components, Transistor as an Amplifier, Transistor Construction, CB Configuration, CE Configuration, CE Cutoff region, CE Saturation Region, Typical Transistor, CE Current Gain, CC Configuration, Analytical Expressions for Transistor Characteristics Maximum Voltage Rating, Phototransistor
6
Transistor at Low Frequencies:
Graphical Analysis of the CE configuration, Two-Port Devices and the Hybrid Model, Transistor Hybrid Model, h-Parameters, Conversion Formulas for the Parameters of Three Transistor Configurations, Analysis
of a Transistor Amplifier Circuit Using h Parameters, Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems and Corollaries, Emitter Follower, Comparison of Transistor Amplifier Configurations, Linear Analysis of a Transistor Circuit,
Miller’s Theorem and its Dual, Cascading Transistor Amplifiers, Simplified CE Hybrid Model, Simplified Calculations for the CC Configuration, CE Amplifier with an Emitter Resistance, High Input Resistance Transistor Circuits
7
Transistor Biasing and Thermal Stabilization:
Operating Point, Bias Stability, Self-Bias , Stabilization against Variations in
ICO, VBE and β, General Remarks on Collector-Current Stability, Bias
Compensation, Thermistor and Sensistor Compensation, Thermal
Runaway, Thermal Stability
8
Field Effect Transistors:
Junction FET, Pinch-Off Voltage, JFET Volt-Ampere Characteristics, FET Small-Signal Model, MOSFET, Digital MOSFET Circuits, Low Frequency CS and CD Amplifiers, Biasing the FET, The FET as a Voltage Variable Resistor, CS Amplifier at High Frequencies, CD Amplifier at High Frequencies
9
Power Circuits and Systems:
Class A large Signal Amplifiers, Second Harmonic Distortion, Higher –Order Harmonic Generation, Transformer Coupled Audio Power Amplifier ,Efficiency, Push-Pull Amplifiers, Class B Amplifiers, Class AB Operation, Regulated Power Supplies, Series Voltage Regulator
BOOKS
Title
1
Integrated Electronics By Jacob Millman and Christos C. Halkias, Tata McGraw Hill Publication
2
Electronics Devices by Floyd , Pearson Publication [Seventh edition]
3
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Robert Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky [Ninth Edition]
Circuits and Networks
TOPICS
Description
1
Circuit Variables and Circuit Elements:
Electromotive Force, Potential and Voltage – A Voltage Source with a Resistance Connected at its Terminals – Two-terminal Capacitance – Twoterminal Inductance- Ideal Independent Two-terminal Electrical Sources – Power and Energy Relations for Two-terminal Elements – Classification of Two-terminal Elements – Multi-terminal Circuit Elements, Dot Convention.
2
Nodal Analysis and Mesh Analysis of resistive Circuits:
Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Resistors and Independent Sources – Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Dependent Voltage Sources – Source Transformation Theorem for circuits with independent sources – Source Transformation Theorem for circuits with Dependent sources -Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Dependent Sources – Mesh Analysis of Circuits with Resistors and Independent Voltage Sources- Mesh Analysis of Circuits with Independent Sources – Mesh Analysis of Circuits Containing Dependent Sources
3
Circuit Theorems:
Linearity of a Circuit and Superposition Theorem – Substitution Theorem – Compensation Theorem – Thevenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem – Determination of Equivalents for Circuits with Dependent Sources – Reciprocity Theorem – Maximum Power Transfer Theorem – Millman’s Theorem
4
Time domain response of First order RL and RC circuits:
Mathematical preliminaries – Source free response –DC response of first order circuits – Superposition and linearity – Response Classifications – First order RC Op Amp Circuits
5
Time domain response of Second order linear circuits:
Discharging of a Capacitor through an inductor – Source free second order linear networks – second order linear networks with constant inputs
6
Initial Conditions:
Initial conditions in elements, procedure for evaluating initial conditions, Solution of circuit equations by using Initial Conditions.
7
Laplace Transform Analysis: Circuit Applications:
Notions of Impedance and Admittance – Manipulation of Impedance and Admittance- Notions of Transfer Function- Equivalent circuits for inductors and capacitors – Nodal and Loop analysis in the s-domain – Switching in RLC circuits- Switched capacitor circuits and conservation of charge
8
Laplace Transform Analysis :
Transfer Function Applications: Poles, Zeros and the s-plane- Classification of Responses – Computation of
sinusoidal steady state response for stable networks and systems
9
Two –Port Networks :
One port networks – Two port admittance Parameters – Admittance parameters analysis of terminated two- Port networks – Two port impedance Parameters –Impedance and Gain calculations of terminated two- Port
networks modeled by z-parameters – Hybrid parameters – Generalized Two-port Parameters – Transmission parameters – reciprocity
10
Introduction to Network Topology:
Linear Oriented Graphs (Connected Graph, Subgraphs and Some Special Subgraphs) – The Incidence Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph -Kirchhoff’s Laws in Incidence Matrix Formulation – Nodal Analysis of Networks – The Circuit Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph- Kirchhoff’s Laws in Fundamental Circuit Matrix Formulation – Loop Analysis of Electrical Networks – ( Loop Analysis of Networks Containing Ideal Dependent Sources- Planar Graphs and Mesh Analysis –Duality)- The Cut-set Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph ( Cut-sets – The All cut-set matrix Qa- Orthogonality relation between Cut-set matrix and Circuit matrix – The Fundamental Cut-set Matrix Qf – Relation between Qf , A and Bf) – Kirchhoff’s Laws in Fundamental Cut-set formulation
BOOKS
Title
1
Electric Circuits and Networks :- By K. S. Suresh Kumar – Pearson Education
2
Linear Circuits Analysis 2nd edition :-By DeCarlo/ Lin – Oxford University Press (Indian edition)
3
Network Analysis :- By M.E Van Valkenburg PHI Publication
4
Engineering Circuit Analysis : – By W H Hayt, J E Kemmerly, S M Durbin 6th Edition TMH Publication
5
Network Analysis & Synthesis By Franklin S. KUO, Wiley Publication
Digital Logic Design
TOPICS
Description
1
Binary System:
Digital computer and digital systems, Binary Number, Number base conversion Octal and Hexadecimal Number, complements, Binary Codes, Binary Storage and register, Binary Logic, Integrated Circuit
2
Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates :
Basic Definition, Axiomatic Definition of Boolean Algebra, Basic Theorem and Properties of Boolean Algebra, Minterms And Maxterms, Logic Operations, Digital Logic Gates, IC digital Logic Families
3
Simplification of Boolean Functions:
Different types Map method, Product of sum Simplification, NAND or NOR implementation, Don’t Care condition, Tabulation method
4
Combinational Logic :
Introduction, Design Procedure, adder, subtractor, Code Conversion, Universal Gate
5
Combinational Logic With MSI AND LSI :
Introduction, Binary Parallel Adder, Decimal Adder, Magnitude Comparator, Decoder, Multiplexer, ROM, Programmable Logic Array.
6
Sequential Logic:
Introduction, Flip-Flops, Triggering of Flip-Flops, Analysis of Clocked Sequential Circuits, State Reduction and Assignment, Flip-Flop Excitation Tables, Design Procedure, Design of Counters, Design with State Equations
7
Registers Transfer Logic & Micro-Operation :
Introduction, Inter-register Transfer, Arithmetic, logic and shift Micro-
Operations, Conditional Control Statements, Fixed-Point Binary Data,
overflow, Arithmetic Shifts, Decimal Data, Floating-Point Data, Instruction
Codes, Design of Simple Computer
8
Registers, Counters and the Memory unit :
Introduction, Registers, Shift Registers, Ripple Counters, Synchronous Counters, Timing Sequences, Memory Unit
9
Processor Logic Design :
Introduction, Processor Organization, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Design of Arithmetic and logic circuit, Design of ALU. Status Register, Design of shifter, Processor Unit,Design of Accumulator.
10
Control Logic Design :
Introduction, Control Organization, Hard-Wired Control, Micro-Program Control.
BOOKS
Title
1
Digital Logic and Computer Design By M Morris Mano
2
Principle of digital Electronics By Malvino & Leach
3
Modern Digital Electronics By R.P.Jain
Electrical Machine
TOPICS
Description
1
Transformers:
(i) Single Phase Transformer:
Working principle, Construction, types, EMF equation, Transformer losses, effect of load, magnetic and resistive leakage, equivalent circuit, transformer testing, regulation of transformer, transformer efficiency, effect of power factor variation on efficiency, auto transformer.
(ii) Three Phase Transformer:
connections, Power supplied by V – V bank, Three – phase to Two-phase conversion, Two – phase to Three – phase conversion, Parallel operation of three – phase transformers, Instrument transformers, Current transformers, Potential transformers
2
Principles of Electromagnetic Energy Conversion:
Forces and Torques in Magnetic Field Systems; Singly Excited and Multiply Excited Field Systems; Elementary Concepts of Rotating Machines; Losses and efficiency, ventilation and cooling, machine ratings, leakage and harmonic fluxes
3
Induction Machines:
Constructional features of poly-phase induction machines; Stator and Rotating Magnetic Field; Torque production; Slip; Equivalent circuit of a Polyphase Induction Machine; equivalent circuit from test data; Threephase induction machine performance; Torque-Slip characteristic; Circle diagram; Speed control of Polyphase induction motors, Starting methods for polyphase induction motors; Induction generator, Cogging and crawling; Single-phase induction motors; No-load and Blocked-rotor test; Starting methods for single-phase induction motors; Application
4
Synchronous Machines:
Constructional features of synchronous machines; Elementary synchronous machine; Equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine, Voltage regulation; Power – angle and other performance characteristics; Effect of Saliency; Determining reactance by test data; Parallel operation of interconnected synchronous generators; Steady – state stability; Excitation systems; Hunting and damper winding; Applications
5
Direct-Current Machines:
Constructional features of DC machines; Elementary DC machine; Methods of excitation of DC machines; Equivalent circuit of DC machine; Commutator action; Armature reaction; Interpoles and compensating windings; Magnetization characteristic of a DC machine; Characteristics of a separately excited DC generator; Self excitation; Characteristic of a DC shunt generator; Characteristic of a DC series generator; Characteristic of a DC compound generator; DC motor characteristics; Control of DC motors; Testing and efficiency; Applications
BOOKS
Title
1
Electrical machines; Mulukutla S. Sharma, and Mikesh K. Pathak; Cengage Publication
2
A Text of Electrical Technology; B. L. Theraja, and A. K. Theraja; S. Chand Publication
Electronics Workshop
TOPICS
Description
1
Soldering
Soldering techniques, stripping and tinning standed wires, mounting components- plated through hole and surface mount technology, hand wire soldering, de-soldering techniques, electrostatic discharge.
2
Analog Troubleshooting:
Electronics troubleshooting basics, troubleshooting with Oscilloscopes, signal injection and signal tracing, system analysis, diagnostics methods, servicing close loop circuits, troubleshooting noise and intermittent.
3
Digital Troubleshooting:
Introduction to troubleshooting digital logic, Introduction to logic analyzers, working with Digital circuits and use of logic analysis system for troubleshooting Digital circuits.
4
PC Hardware basics:
How computers work, system board, CD/DVD Drives and Hard Drives, Troubleshooting Fundamentals, Device Manager, Different Hardware and its Drivers, Multimedia Technologies, Power Supplies.
5
Study of Soldering Techniques and PCB Design :
Students are expected to select any experiment. Soldering and testing is to be done for the selected experiment. Perform simulation of the same experiment by using CAD tools. Schematic as well as PCB design is to be carried out using CAD tools.
6
Design, Simulation and Implementation of Analog/Digital/MixMode Project :
Students are expected to design any analog/digital/mix mode application of their choice. Perform simulation using software tools. PCB design, fabrication of PCB, testing and implementation should be done. Documentation of the project is to be done in standard IEEE format. Project report should include abstract in maximum 100 words, keywords, introduction, design, simulation, implementation, results, conclusion and references.
BOOKS
Title
1
Jean Andrews, Enhanced guide to managing and maintaining your PC, edition, 2001, Course Technology – Thomson learning publishers
2
Rashid M.H. “SPICE for circuits and electronics using pSpice”, Prentice Hall
3
Bosshart, “Printed Circuit Boards: Design and Technology”, Tata McGraw Hill Orcad/PCBII , “User’s Guide”.
Simulation and Design Tools
TOPICS
Description
1
Introduction to SPICE
(i) Introduction to PSpice software, file types, netlist commands. Basic analyses: DC, AC, Transient. Analog behavioral models (ABM): equations setup, IF statement, voltage/current/ frequency dependent sources. Advanced analyses: noise, Monte-Carlo, worst-case. Spectral description of signals (FFT), measuring the total harmonic distortion (THD). Circuit optimization using PSpice Optimizer software.
(ii) Models of resistor, capacitor, inductor, energy sources (VCVS, CCVS, Sinusoidal source, pulse, etc), transformer, DIODE, BJT, FET, MOSFET, etc. sub circuits.
2
Laboratories
Simulation of following circuits using spice (Schematic entry of circuits using standard packages. Analysis- transient, AC, DC, etc.):
a) Potential divider.
b) Integrator & Differentiator (I/P PULSE) – Frequency response of RC circuits.
c) Diode, BJT, FET, MOSFET Characteristics.
d) Simulate and study half-wave, full-wave, and bridge-rectifier using PSPICE windows
e) Simulate and study diode clipper and clamper circuits using PSPICE windows
f) Voltage Regulators.
g) Simulate and study emitter bias and fixed bias BJT and JFET circuits using PSPICE windows, and determine quiescent conditions.
h) Simulate a common emitter amplifier using self biasing and study the effect of variation in emitter resistor on voltage gain , input and output impedance using PSPICE windows .
i) Determine the frequency response of Vo/Vs for CE BJT amplifier using PSPICE windows. Study the effect of cascading of two stages on band width.
j) Simulate and study Darlington pair amplifier circuit using PSPICE windows and determine dc bias and output ac voltage .
k) Simulate RC Coupled amplifiers – Transient analysis and Frequency response.
l) Simulate FET & MOSFET amplifiers.
m) Simulate Multivibrators.
n) Simulate Oscillators (RF & AF).
o) Study an operational amplifier using PSPICE windows and find out: CMMR, gain band width product, slew rate, 3-db frequency, and input offset voltage.
p) Simulate and study active low pass, high pass, and band pass filters using PSPICE windows.
q) Simulate and study class A, B, C, and AB amplifier using PSPICE windows.
r) Study the operation of 555 timer oscillator using PSPICE.
s) Simulate logic expression..and determine its truth table.
t) Simulate logic expression of full adder circuit and determine its truth table.
u) Simulate a synchronous 4-bit counter and determine its count sequence.
v) Simulate a master-slave flip-flop using NAND gates and study its operation. Study the operation of asynchronous preset and clear .
3
Introduction to PCB Design (Using OrCAD, Altium, Eagle, PowerPCB or others Package.)
Learning objectives:
This module conveys knowledge on the design and specification of PCB’s, fabrication basics, classes of packages as well as basic technologies of packaging.
Learning outcomes and competences:
The student himself will be able to design, carry out simulation and manufacture the printed circuit board.
Contents to be cover:
Principles of circuit design, design tools, layout techniques.
• Characteristics and materials of printed boards, layout and simulation
• PCB Fabrication : Mechanical production, pick and place, conventional components and SMD, via and
• Plated through connections, soldering, surface coating, multilayer boards, thermal effects.
• HYBRID PCBs: Thick film and thin film technology, material properties and fabrication.
• PACKAGING: Packaging of ICs, PCBs and hybrids, cases and thermal effects.
Laboratories should include:
• Schematic Entry
• Netlist Creation
• Working with component libraries
• Design of Boards
• Layout of Parts
• Optimizing Parts Placements
• Pads and Via
• Manual and Auto Routing
• Handling Multiple Layers
4
Introduction to MATLAB Software
Learning objectives:
Introduction to Matlab, study of matlab functions. Writing simple programs using matlab, for handling arrays, files, plotting of functions etc. Writing M files for Creation of analog & discrete signals, plotting of signals etc. Filtering of analog & digital signals using convolution. Generation of noise signals (Gaussian, random, Poisson etc) Simulation using Simulink. Simulation study
Laboratories should include:
• Design of analog low pass, bandpass, high pass and band elimination filters using Butterworth, Chebyshev etc.
• Anti-aliasing filters
• Bode plot
• Steady state and Transient analysis
• Z Transforms
• Fourier Analysis
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